bl00mbox is a modular audio engine designed for the flow3r badge. It it suitable for live coding and is best explored in a REPL for the time being.
(in no specific order)
Expose hardware such as captouch and IMU as pseudo-signals that plugins can subscribe to. This frees the repl for parameter manipulation while the backend takes care of the playing surface, neat for live coding.
Stepped value naming
In bl00mbox all sound sources live in a channel. This allows for easy application and patch management. Ideally the OS should provide each application with a channel instance, but you can also spawn one directly:
>>> import bl00mbox # get a channel >>> blm = bl00mbox.Channel() # set channel volume >>> blm.volume = 5000
The easiest way to get sound is to use patches. These are “macroscopic” units and can often be used without much thinking:
# no enter here, press tab instead for autocomplete to see patches >>> bl00mbox.patches. # create a patch instance >>> tiny = blm.new(bl00mbox.patches.tinysynth_fm) # connect sound output to mixer of the channel >>> tiny.signals.output = blm.mixer # play it! >>> tiny.signals.trigger.start() # try autocomplete here too! >>> tiny. # patches come with very individual parameters! >>> tiny.signals.waveform = 0 >>> tiny.signals.trigger.start()
We can inspect the patch we created earlier:
>>> tiny [patch] tinysynth_fm [plugin 32] osc_fm output [output]: 0 => input in [plugin 34] ampliverter pitch [input/pitch]: 18367 / 0.0 semitones / 440.0Hz waveform [input]: -1 lin_fm [input]: 0 <= output in [plugin 35] osc_fm [plugin 33] env_adsr output [output]: 0 => gain in [plugin 34] ampliverter phase [output]: 0 input [input]: 32767 trigger [input/trigger]: 0 attack [ms] [input]: 20 decay [ms] [input]: 1000 sustain [ms] [input]: 0 release [input]: 100 gate [input]: 0 [plugin 34] ampliverter output [output]: 0 ==> [channel mixer] input [input]: 0 <= output in [plugin 32] osc_fm gain [input]: 0 <= output in [plugin 33] env_adsr bias [input]: 0 [plugin 35] osc_fm output [output]: 0 => lin_fm in [plugin 32] osc_fm pitch [input/pitch]: 21539 / 15.86 semitones / 1099.801Hz waveform [input]: 1 lin_fm [input]: 0
The patch is actually composed of plugins and connections! Plugins are atomic signal processing units. Each plugin has signals that can be connected to other signals. Signals can have different properties that are listed behind their name in square brackets. For starters, each signal is either an input or output. Connections always happen between an input and an output. Outputs can fan out to multiple inputs, but inputs can only receive data from a single output. If no output is connected to an input, it has a static value.
A special case is the channel mixer (an [input] signal) which only fakes being a bl00mbox signal and can accept multiple outputs.
Let’s play around with that a bit more and create some fresh unbothered plugins:
# use autocomplete to see plugins >>> bl00mbox.plugins. # print details about specific plugin >>> bl00mbox.plugins.ampliverter # create a new plugin >>> osc = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.osc_fm) >>> env = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.env_adsr)
You can inspect properties of the new plugins just as with a patch - in fact, many patches simply print all their contained plugins and maybe some extra info (but that doesn’t have to be the case and is up to the patch designer).
As of now patch designers can hide plugins within the internal structure however they like and you kind of have to know where to find stuff. We’ll come up with a better solution soon!
# print general info about plugin >>> osc [plugin 36] osc_fm output [output]: 0 pitch [input/pitch]: 18367 / 0.0 semitones / 440.0Hz waveform [input]: -16000 lin_fm [input]: 0 # print info about a specific plugin signal >>> env.signals.trigger trigger [input/trigger]: 0
We can connect signals by using the “=” operator. The channel provides its own [input] signal for routing audio to the audio outputs. Let’s connect the oscillator to it:
# assign an output to an input... >>> env.signals.input = osc.signals.output # ...or an input to an output! >>> env.signals.output = blm.mixer
Earlier we saw that env.signals.trigger is of type [input/trigger]. The [trigger] type comes with a special function to start an event:
# you should hear something when calling this! >>> env.signals.trigger.start()
If a signal is an input you can directly assign a value to it. Some signal types come with special setter functions, for example [pitch] types support multiple abstract input concepts:
# assign raw value to an input signal >>> env.signals.sustain = 16000 # assign a abstract value to a [pitch] with signal type specific setters >>> osc.signals.pitch.freq = 220 >>> osc.signals.pitch.tone = "Gb4"
Raw signal values range generally from -32767..32767. Since sustain is nonzero now, the tone doesn’t automatically stop after calling .start()
# plays forever... >>> env.signals.trigger.start() # ...until you call this! >>> env.signals.trigger.stop()
As mentioned earlier all plugins live inside of a channel. It is up to bl00mbox to decide which channels to skip and which ones to render. In this instance bl00mbox has 32 channels, and we can get them individually:
# returns specific channel >>> chan_one = bl00mbox.Channel(1) >>> chan_one [channel 1: shoegaze] (foreground) volume: 3000 plugins: 18 [channel mixer] (1 connections) output in [plugin 1] lowpass
We have accidentially grabbed the channel used by the shoegaze application! Each application should have its own channel(s), so in order to get a free one we’ll request a free one from the backend by skipping the number. We can also provide a name for a new channel instead.
Do not use .Channel(<in>) in application code, it’s for REPL purposes only. Each application manages their own channel(s), so they might clear out your plugins or drag down your performance or other kinds of nasty interferences. In fact, only .Channel(<string>) is allowed for in the current CI of flower to enforce applications to name their channels.
# returns free or garbage channel >>> chan_free = bl00mbox.Channel("hewwo") >>> chan_free [channel 3: hewwo] (foreground) volume: 3000 plugins: 0 [channel mixer] (0 connections)
In case there’s no free channel yet you get channel 31, the garbage channel. It behaves like any other channel has a high chance to be cleared by other applications, more on that later.
Channels accept volume from 0-32767. This can be used to mix different sounds together, however there also is an auto-foregrounding that we need to be aware of before doing that. When we requested a free channel, bl00mbox automatically moved it to foreground. Let’s look at channel 1 again:
>>> chan_one [channel 1: shoegaze] ...
Note that the (foreground) marker has disappeared. This means no audio from channel 1 is rendered at the moment, but it is still in memory and ready to be used at any time. We have several methods of doing so:
# mark channel as foregrounded manually >>> chan_one.foreground = True >>> chan_one [channel 1: shoegaze] (foreground) ... >>> chan_free [channel 3: hewwo] ... # override the background mute for a channel; # chan_free is always rendered now >>> chan_free.background_mute_override = True >>> chan_one [channel 1: shoegaze] (foreground) ... >>> chan_free [channel 3] # interact with channel to automatically pull it # into foreground >>> chan_free.new(bl00mbox.plugins.osc_fm) >>> chan_one [channel 1: shoegaze] ... >>> chan_free (foreground) [channel 3: hewwo]
What constitutes a channel interaction for auto channel foregrounding is a bit in motion at this point and generally unreliable. For applications it is ideal to mark the channel manually when using it. When exiting, an application should free the channel with automatically clears all plugins. A channel should be no longer used after freeing:
# this clears all plugins and sets the internal "free" marker to zero >>> chan_one.free = True # good practice to not accidentially use a free channel >>> chan_one = None
Some other misc channel operations for live coding mostly:
# drop all plugins >>> chan_free.clear() # show all non-free channels >>> bl00mbox.Channels.print_overview() [channel 3: hewwo] (foreground) volume: 3000 plugins: 0 [channel mixer] (0 connections)
Radspa signal types
Radspa is a C plugin format that all bl00mbox plugins are written in. Its main feature is that all signals are expressed in the same manner so that every input->output connection is valid. This means that for real world value interpretation some decoding is sometimes necessary. While the REPL informs you of these quanta and helper functions such as .start() or .dB() help with first contact, for interfacing with these signals with another signal some understanding is helpful. The data is represented as an int16_t stream.
[pitch] provides a logarithmic frequency input. A value of 18367 represents A440, going up by 1 represents 0.5 cent or 1/2400 octaves or a factor of 2^(1/2400). Special methods: .tone can be set to (float) semitones distance from A440 or a note name such as “F#4”, .freq can be set to a value in Hz
[gain] provides a linear volume input. A value of 4096 represents unity gain. Special methods: .mult is linear and represents unity gain as 1, .dB is 20*log_10(x) and represents unity gain as 0.
[trigger] provides an input for note start/stop events. A start event with a given velocity (midi term, think loudness, 1..32767) from a stopped state is encoded by a permanent signal change to the velocity value. A restart from this “running” state is encoded as permanently flipping the signal sign, i.e to [-1..-32676] and back to [1..32767] on the next restart. A change from nonzero to zero encodes a signal stop. Note: This API is still subject to change.
Example 1: Auto bassline
>>> import bl00mbox >>> blm = bl00mbox.Channel() >>> blm.volume = 10000 >>> osc1 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.osc_fm) >>> env1 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.env_adsr) >>> env1.signals.output = blm.mixer >>> env1.signals.input = osc1.signals.output >>> osc2 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.osc_fm) >>> env2 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.env_adsr) >>> env2.signals.input = osc2.signals.output >>> env2.signals.output = osc1.signals.lin_fm >>> env1.signals.sustain = 0 >>> env2.signals.sustain = 0 >>> env1.signals.attack = 10 >>> env2.signals.attack = 100 >>> env1.signals.decay = 800 >>> env2.signals.decay = 800 >>> osc1.signals.pitch.tone = -12 >>> osc2.signals.pitch.tone = -24 >>> osc3 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.osc_fm) >>> osc3.signals.waveform = 0 >>> osc3.signals.pitch.tone = -100 >>> osc3.signals.output = env1.signals.trigger >>> osc3.signals.output = env2.signals.trigger >>> osc4 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.osc_fm) >>> osc4.signals.waveform = 32767 >>> osc4.signals.pitch.tone = -124 >>> amp1 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.ampliverter) >>> amp1.signals.input = osc4.signals.output >>> amp1.signals.bias = 18376 - 2400 >>> amp1.signals.gain = 300 >>> amp1.signals.output = osc1.signals.pitch >>> amp2 = blm.new(bl00mbox.plugins.ampliverter) >>> amp2.signals.input = amp1.signals.output >>> amp2.signals.bias = - 2400 >>> amp2.signals.gain = 31000 >>> amp2.signals.output = osc2.signals.pitch >>> osc2.signals.output = blm.mixer